Allergy • Intolerance • Celiac • PCR

ALLERGY- Allergy IgE panel is an in vitro diagnostic test in the qualitative determination of allergen IgE concentrations in human serum/plasma using immunoblotting technique.

A multiplex allergy diagnostic kit, based on the principle of enzyme immunoassay includes nitrocellulose membranes having various allergens absorbed at regular interval lines, which makes it possible to test 107 specific allergens in one test.

The World Allergy Organisation’s (WAO) estimate of allergy prevalence of the whole population by country ranges between 10 – 40% (Pawankar R, et al, 2013). Allergy is a very common ailment, affecting more than 20% of the population of most developed countries (Pawankar R, et al, 2013).

INTOLERANCE- Protia Food IgG is an in vitro diagnostic test with semi-quantitative determination of food specific IgG (sIgG) in human serum using immunoblotting method. In general, the intestine only absorbs nutrients. Bacteria, viruses, and food decomposition elements do not absorb into the body due to its dense composition (tight junction). However, when the dense structure of the intestine is damaged and becomes “leaky gut”, the food decomposition elements penetrate into the blood. This makes our body’s immune system recognize the food decomposition factor as an external harmful factor, causing an immune sensitive reaction.

Understanding the difference between food allergies and food intolerances can leave a person justifiably confused. With these medical conditions having potential overlapping symptoms (e.g., cramps, upset stomach, diarrhea, skin rash, and headache), it is easy to see why the line separating the two is so often blurred.

Food allergy (also called hypersensitivity) involves an inappropriate immune reaction to a seemingly harmless, non-pathogenic substance. The body reacts to the substance as if it were fighting a disease-producing microorganism. In contrast to food allergy, food intolerance does not involve the body’s immune system. Intolerance is an adverse reaction to a food, likely to originate in the gastrointestinal system, usually caused by a limited ability or an inability to digest or absorb certain foods or their components.

CELIAC- Celiac is characterized by inflammation of the small bowel, triggered by exposure to gluten. IgA is mediated antibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase. Celiac Disease is an enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten and specifically to gliadin, one of its protein fragments. The Celiac Quick Test is an immunochromatographic test designed for the qualitative detection of antibodies (IgA/IgG/IgM) against human tissue transglutaminase in whole human blood.

PCR- The GeneXpert Instrument Systems automate and integrate sample preparation, nucleic acid extraction and amplification, and detection of the target sequences in simple or complex samples using real-time PCR assays. The sensitivity of the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay was found to be 100% (20 of 20) and the specificity was 80% (16 of 20).

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