A couple of years ago, a Fijian who had been engaged as deck crew on a tuna longliner was ‘offloaded’ in Hong Kong; he knew no-one there and had little money.
Why was that action taken? Was he lazy, or ate ‘too much’, got sick, attacked the other crew, or? No. The reason was that he knew his rights and kept asking for them. Things like decent food and adequate rest time. He was a bother to the captain.
One fishing company representative recently confirmed to us what I’d been told by community members living adjacent to fishing company premises — that particular companies sometimes are so in need of deck crew that they send a driver into the settlements or along adjacent roads, looking for youngish (and brawny) men to work as deck crew. “Hey Boso - Want a job?”
Barring a few exceptions most 18- to 40-year-old men in coastal Suva settlement communities work as deck crew on Fiji-flagged and Distant Water Fishing Nation (DWFN) vessels, and most left school either at the end of primary school or half-way through secondary school. As teenagers they saw that their fathers or uncles got work easily on fishing vessels – so why bother finishing school? A job was there for the taking once the teenager reached 18 years of age. On a fishing vessel.
Fiji maritime laws state that all crew engaged on Fiji-flagged vessels must be certified. Are the pick-ups certified? Mostly ‘no’.
Apart from meeting legal requirements, there are benefits for fishing companies hiring certified deck crew. The first (lowest) certification is that of ‘Basic Sea Safety’ or ‘Pre-Sea Training’. It has four components – personal survival technique, personal safety and social responsibility, proficiency in elementary first aid, and basic fire prevention and control. At first glance, even a landlubber can recognise skills in those areas are of value on a vessel at sea.
It took a fair amount of energy and time for us to persuade the first of the settlement men, all with years of fishing experience under their belts, to attend the Fiji Maritime Academy and earn a certificate. At early discussions, the men’s body language at the thought of ’going back to school’ was – well – just as we thought it would be, exemplified by the chorus of ten volunteers for the first intake dwindling overnight to just three: seven men determined that their comfort zone was greater on a fishing vessel. It was the thought of maybe being paid F$5 (US$2.42) more a day that tipped the remaining three over the line, and having completed the one-month course, those men became their communities’ instant heroes. By now, eight more men have ‘gone back to school’ and there is a line-up for the next months’ classes.
Attending the FMA for one month doesn’t come cheaply and there are additional costs preparatory to the graduates receiving their sea safety certificate and logbook, the Seaman’s Employment Record Book, SERB. The average cost per person is F$950 (US$460).
To date, the schooling and primary upgrading of Fiji deck crew has been facilitated by a United Kingdom food processing company, World Wise Foods U.K. and its Chief Executive Officer, John Burton, to whom eleven men, their families, and us, are extremely grateful: John sent sufficient funds for 15 men to complete the course and receive their SERB and certificate.
Now demand has outstripped supply.
There are several reasons for reaching out to you, the reader, for support to continue this training exercise: it ensures that all vessel crew are legal; there is logistical and safety reasons for hiring trained seafarers; a trained crew can be a smaller crew; and the personal benefit gained by the trained men expresses itself by their enhanced work ethic and interest in taking on higher-level training. Above all, it lifts the standard of the Pacific tuna fishery, something to which all Pacific Islands nations aspire.
In short, it’s a no-brainer for fishing companies to only seek out brawny men as deck crew!
Solomon Island, Fijian and Papua New Guinean fisheries observers are now home after being repatriated from American Samoa this week.
Some of them had been away from home since December last year.
The nine Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA) Observers disembarked from United States fishing boats in Pago Pago over the past several weeks. They are now being quarantined in their home countries.
The FFA says the repatriation exercise was financed by the American Tunaboat Association (ATA) member vessel owners.
A tenth PNG observer disembarked in Honolulu and transited through California and Brisbane, before arriving in Port Moresby this week.
In March, the FFA temporarily suspended the requirement for 100% observer coverage on all Purse Seine Vessels in the WCPO. The temporary suspension also calls for vessel operators to repatriate observers that were on their vessels.
Director-General Dr Manu Tupou-Roosen said "FFA is sincerely grateful to the ATA Executive Director and its members for the hard work with the relevant national observer programmes and the FFA Secretariat to ensure the safe return of our observers."
"The extraordinary situation we're all faced with calls for closer cooperation, and this is a great example of this," she added.
ATA Executive Director, William Gibbons-Fly said while repatriating the observers had been a considerable challenge, they received very strong support from American Samoan government and officials.
Other observers have already returned home, including a Marshall Islands observer who was finally dropped off in Majuro after going all the way to Mexico and back – a journey lasting several weeks.
The Papua New Guinea Fishing Industry Association (PNGFIA) wants to widen the scope of its fishery products and fishing vessels covered by its recent Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)-certified status.
And the organisation remains highly critical of Pacifical, the commercial entity 50/50 owned by PNA members and Netherlands-based Sustunable bv, marketing the Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA's) tuna products in the global market.
PNGFIA announced the success of its MSC certification application in May. This makes it the latest party in the Pacific region eligible to carry the coveted international sustainable fishing label on its fishery products, and the first with the premium blue label certification.
"We are still not happy with PNA Pacifical because this structure has 50% foreign interest and they are riding on us PNA for personal gain. None of the PNA understand fully how Pacifical works. It is controlled by persons with vested interest using PNA as a conduit," PNGFIA Sylvester Pokajam President told Islands Business.
For the whole story, get your copy of Islands Business.
Tuna expert Dr Transform Aqorau says COVID-19 presents challenges and opportunities to equity in the Pacific’s tuna industry.
Marking World Tuna Day in a virtual link-up hosted by Pacific Island Developing States and the United Nations’ Group of Friends of the Oceans, Dr Aqorau said the tuna industry will suffer as “quarantine requirements; suspension of air flights; and disruptions to the supply chain will affect the supply of tuna to regional and global markets. This will have adverse impact on jobs in the Pacific and on foreign exchange earnings from the industry”.
But he said it is also an opportunity to rebuild a more equitable Pacific tuna industry, suggesting Pacific governments “should explore incentive structures that encourage increased processing within the region.”
Dr Aqorou said that climate change and illegal and underreporting of tuna catches were a growing concern that Pacific governments need to be fighting for in the international arena.
A statement issued by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission to mark the day said “it is gratifying for the WCPFC to celebrate the World Tuna Day in 2020 in the comfort and knowledge that the four key commercial tuna stocks; bigeye, yellowfin, skipjack and the South Pacific albacore tuna stocks are all assessed to be managed and maintained above the agreed sustainable levels.”
Fiji’s Permanent Representative to the UN, Dr Satyendra Prasad remined the UN audience that “accelerating international action in achieving the SDG 14 – Life Below Water should be part of the UN’s response. This should also become a core part of the COVID-19 recovery efforts – the recovery must be a sustainable blue recovery as well.
World Tuna Day is celebrated on May 2.
By NETANI RIKA in Port Moresby
AS Pacific fishing nations end their first week of discussions on tuna, the question of Target Reference Points loom large on the agenda.
What indicators establish the target fishery state that should be achieved and maintained on average?
It’s a point over which there have been hours of debate, argument and conflict at the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission for years – often without an amicable solution.
There a four species of tuna in the Western and Central Pacific – Skipjack, Yellowfin, Bigeye and Albacore.
For each species there are Target Reference Points which are part of a larger Harvest Strategy – the actual management of tuna stocks, fishing methods, conservation measures, scientific research.
But it’s the Target Reference Points where members of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission which is currently in its 16th Regular Session are often trapped.
The larger fishing nations – China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia and the United States – attempt to wriggle free of scientific analysis indicating that stocks must be maintained at no less than 26 per cent of critical biomass.
Every year they challenge the science, push the boundaries and try to bully their way to a larger share of the Pacific tuna catch.
And every year the Pacific nations, guardians of 50 per cent of the world’s tuna stock must struggle to control the fishery, maintain a sustainable stock and make a little money.
If the 16th WCPFC Regular Session in Port Moresby can agree to Target Reference Points, it will then face the challenge of coming to an agreement on harvest strategies.
John Maifiti of the Pacific Island Tuna Industry Association is under no illusions about the enormity of the task at hand.
“We acknowledge the progress that has been made so far with the Target Reference Points for skipjack,” Maifiti said.
“Currently they don’t have any interim TRP for albacore and bigeye and this is what we want the commission to come up with and put it in place.’’
Fiji is one of the countries affected heavily by tuna migration and its Fisheries Minister, Commander Semi Koroilavesau, has spent the last three years pushing for specific reference points for albacore.
As chair of the WCPFC’s Albacore Roadmap Working Group, Koroilavesau indicated today that a TRP outcome would be his prime agenda in the next 12 months.
American Samoa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Samoa and French Polynesia have indicated their support for Fiji’s approach to secure a Target Reference Point on albacore as soon as economically possible.
Maifiti said one of the issues of contention when attempting to agree on Target Reference Points was the difference between scientific advice and actual results shown by fishing fleets.
“At times the science says one thing, but the catch says something else – it doesn’t match up and that is one of our concerns as well,” Maifiti said.
“Even though all the science says that biologically the tuna species are in a healthy state, the next question to ask is, is there enough fish for the fishing vessels to catch and make enough money. I think that’s the issue we have currently.
“It’s very important that we push for this harvest strategy to manage the fisheries.’’
Maifiti has set those harvest strategies as the industry’s immediate priority.
But he warned that the WCPFC had worked very slowly in this area since an initial work plan was agreed in 2014.
“When they reviewed it in 2017, the progress was very low and they shifted it for another four years and there’s a high chance they won’t agree on compliance when the current measures end in two years,” Maifiti said.
“The important thing for the industry is to put in place the management measure for the four key resources – skipjack, bigeye, yellowfin and albacore.’’
Maifiti said the issue of harvest strategy was important for the sustainability and viability of the fisheries.
“It’s important for the fisheries for the commission to come up with a harvest strategy. They are the ones mandated to manage fisheries,” he said.
“Inside the Exclusive Economic Zones and at the national level the Pacific countries already have some strong management measures in place – control harvest measures.
“But on the high seas where the commission is responsible, that’s where we don’t have any management system. There’re no harvest strategies to have harvest control in place to measure fisheries.’’
Maifiti said the Forum Fisheries Agency had pushed for some time for concrete measures but Distant Water Fishing Nations – keep pushing back.
At the moment the industry doesn’t feel the impact of the current stock status because they are highly subsidised from the countries. Like now the cost for them is less than for Pacific fleets.
Early indications are that the European Union will be one of the WCPFC parties which will push back on the albacore measures and reference points.